In the year 63 B.C.E. the Roman Emperor General Pompei captures Jerusalem, bringing all of Judea under Roman rule.

The Hasmonean King present then is just a puppet of the Roman government. An Idumian by the name of Antipather becomes the governor-general on behalf of the Romans. He has a son called Herod (who called himself “the Great”).

In the year 30 B.C.E., Herod is appointed the Roman governor of Judea. He is a psychopath who is both a great builder and a great murderor. He marries the daughter of the Hasmonean King, yet drives her to suicide by murdering their children. This is the end of the Hasmonean line.

In the same year 30 B.C.E., the great Rabbi Hillel becomes the head of the Sanhedrin. He is opposite of Herod in every way.

Hillel was kind, patient, scholarly. Together with Shammai they build the spiritual/educational state of Israel.

From 30 B.C.E. till 70 C.E. was the last time period of Jewish independance, and the beginning of the large Jewish exile.