Hillel and Shammai established schools which were called the House of Hillel and the House of Shammai. These schools are the bridge of the Oral Law into the Mishna and Talmud.

From 30 B.C.E. till about 200 C.E. is the devlopment of Jewish law based on the principles taught to Moshe at Sinai (i.e. the Mishna).

From 200 C.E. till about 550 C.E. is the development of the Talmud- explanation of the Mishna.

The Romans became more and more oppressive. They insisted on instituting Paganism, gladiator fights, etc. Eventually in 66 C.E. the Jews revolted against rome.

Though there were different groups within the Jewish people. The Rabbis generally opposed fighting Rome at this point, saying that it’s best to ride out the storm in Israel.

The Zealots said it’s better to die than serve Rome, though such suicide is not a Jewish idea.

The Brigands were essentially mercenaries in it for the money.

Then there was the regular Jewish army.

These forces combined and fought the Romans ferociously, even succeeding at first. By the year 68, it was obvious that the cause was lost. The Zealots persisted to continue to death. By 70, Vespasian seized Jerusalem and on the 9th day of Av was able to burn the temple by using tremendous heat.

The physical beauty that was destroyed with the Temple Herod built was magnificent as well. The Talmud says that someone who never saw that Temple never saw real beauty.