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Dr. Henry Abramson (YouTube)
“Who Was Doña Gracia Nasi? Jewish History as Biography”

Uriel da Costa
Exemplar Humanae Vitae
Courtesy San Jose State University

CrashCourse (YouTube)
“Cartesian Skepticism – Neo, Meet René: CrashCourse Philosophy #5”

François Soyer
“King Manuel I and the expulsion of the Castilian Conversos and Muslims from Portugal in 1497: new perspectives”
University of Southampton

Bento de Spinoza
Theological-Political Treatise

0:00 The Portuguese Resistance
3:40 Gracia Mendes Nasi
5:55 The Dutch Revolt
9:20 Uriel da Costa
13:28 The Reopening of Western Europe
16:48 Spinoza
24:20 The Paradox of Chosenness
27:09 The Birth of Secular Judaism