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Sources:

Simon Sebag Montefiore
Jerusalem: the Biography
https://amzn.to/31eNnZd

Eliezer bar Nathan
“The Massacres of Jews by the First Crusaders”
https://www.ccjr.us/dialogika-resources/primary-texts-from-the-history-of-the-relationship/bar-nathan

Historia Civilis
“The Siege of Jerusalem (1099)”
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=heVeJmTOsmQ

Rebecca E. Tripp’s rendition of “Ice Cavern”
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bG65EX3lwEs

0:00 Prologue
0:32 The Last Geonim
1:46 The Rise of Ashkenaz
4:29 Rashi
5:49 The Council of Clermont
7:16 The Rhineland Massacres
11:13 The Siege of Jerusalem
14:19 The Crusader Genocide
15:51 Epilogue